2. Why Doesn't Work Work?
About This Video
It's deep-seated assumptions that keep us doing work in the same way.
Work is stuck in a 1950s model that no longer matches the workplace of today. This video outlines three interlocking cultural norms that keep work stuck. By understanding this larger framework, you will be able to move beyond surface issues to create lasting, workable solutions.
View Why Doesn't Work Work? Resources
- Work-Family Conflict is not the Problem. Overwork Is.: Ely and Padavic argue that flexibility policies alone won't solve what's wrong with work. We must address the culture of overwork.
- Where's the Boss? Trapped in a Meeting: This "Wall Street Journal" article looks at the amount of time CEOs spend in meetings and questions whether more meetings translate to an effective use of executive time.
- Debunking Five Myths Concerning Employee Engagement: A recent report debunks the myths and reveals practices for enhancing...: This short list shows how current practices are not producing the most effective employees. Five commonly-held myths regarding employee engagement provide clues as to how to assess outdated workplace ideas, and provide examples of ways to promote a positive work culture.
- Employer Support for Workplace Flexibility has Declined Since 2008: Now Get Back To Work: This article reveals that support for workplace flexiblity is declining. It shows the negative effects of this decline and offers suggestions for the next steps in workplace redesign.
- Extreme Jobs: The Dangerous Allure of the 70-Hour Work Week: This Harvard Business School report shows how overwork is dangerous for individuals, the workplace, and society at large.
- The Three Faces of Work-Family Conflict: The Center for American Progress explores work-family conflict and the disconnect between families, workers, and policymakers.
- Building Flexibility Into the Way We Work: Kelly and Mohen discuss the problems with current flexibility policies and how to reshape them to fit the needs of today's workers.
View Why Doesn't Work Work? Biographies
FORMERLY SENIOR VICE PRESIDENT, HUMAN RESOURCES, EBAY INC.
Beth is a global executive with deep expertise in business strategy, people management and organization development, particularly in the technology and professional services sectors. Most recently, she spent a decade as eBay Inc.’s Senior Vice President, Human Resources. She was responsible for all aspects of the company's human resources capabilities designed to drive the performance of the business. These included HR strategy, data analytics, gender diversity, recruiting, learning and development, compensation, benefits and the continuing evolution of the company's culture. Beth also sat on the board of the eBay Foundation, which oversees eBay’s philanthropic and social innovation endeavors.
Previously, Beth was Chief Talent Officer at WPP Group plc, one of the world's leading communications services groups, where she was also an Executive Director of the company’s Board. She was responsible for all aspects of HR worldwide. Before WPP, Beth spent nearly 12 years at McKinsey & Company where she was a principal/partner serving clients’ strategy and organization needs. She led the Firm’s second generation of research titled The War for Talent and is a co-author of the book The War for Talent.
Beth sits on the Advisory Board of Bulger Partners, an investment banking and strategy consulting firm. She also serves on the Advisory Board of the Jay H. Baker Retailing Center at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, The Clayman Institute for Gender Research at Stanford University, YaleWomen, the community of Yale University alumnae committed to advancing women’s voices and UC Berkeley Center for Executive Education.
She holds a BSE degree with a concentration in Finance from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania and a Master’s in Public and Private Management (MPPM) from the Yale School of Management where she was named a Donaldson Fellow in 2014/2015.
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF SOCIOLOGY, RICE UNIVERSITY
CLAYMAN INSTITUTE POSTDOCTORAL SCHOLAR 2011-12
PH.D., UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA - SOCIOLOGY
Erin Cech joined the sociology department as an Assistant Professor in 2012. She was recently a Postdoctoral Fellow at the Clayman Institute for Gender Research at Stanford University and earned her Ph.D. in Sociology in 2011 from the University of California, San Diego. She earned undergraduate degrees in Electrical Engineering and Sociology from Montana State University.
Cech’s research examines the cultural mechanisms of inequality reproduction—specifically, how inequality is reproduced through processes that are not overtly discriminatory or coercive, but rather those that are built into seemingly innocuous cultural beliefs and practices. She investigates this puzzle through three streams of research. First, she examines what she calls the “self-expressive edge” of occupational sex segregation: how the seemingly voluntary and self-expressive—yet culturally and structurally informed—decisions of men and women reproduce occupational sex segregation. Second, she uses quantitative and qualitative approaches to examine inequality in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) professions—specifically, the recruitment and retention of women, Native Americans, and LGBT individuals, and the role of professional cultures in this inequality. Finally, she studies how cultural understandings of the extent and origin of inequality helps to uphold unequal social structures. Cech’s research has been covered in the Chronicle of Higher Education, Huffington Post, California Daily, Stanford Watch, and the online careers section of Science.
SOCIOLOGIST, CLAYMAN INSTITUTE
CLAYMAN INSTITUTE POSTDOCTORAL FELLOW, 2010-2011
Marianne Cooper is a sociologist at the Clayman Institute. She was the lead researcher for the book, Lean In: Women, Work, and the Will to Lead by Sheryl Sandberg. Her forthcoming book, Cut Adrift: Families in Insecure Times, with the University of California Press examines how families are coping in an insecure age. She is a core team member of the Clayman Institute’s Voice & Influence program. Cooper received her PhD in sociology from the University of California, Berkeley. She can be contacted at coopermarianne [at] gmail.com (coopermarianne[at]gmail[dot]com) For more information about Marianne and her latest book, visit her website at http://mariannecooper.com.
Shelley J. Correll
BARBARA D. FINBERG DIRECTOR, CLAYMAN INSTITUTE
PROFESSOR OF SOCIOLOGY, STANFORD UNIVERSITY
PROFESSOR, BY COURTESY, OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR, STANFORD GRADUATE SCHOOL OF BUSINESS
VOICE & INFLUENCE EDUCATION MODULE PRESENTER
Shelley Correll is professor of sociology and organizational behavior at Stanford University and the Barbara D. Finberg Director of the Clayman Institute for Gender Research. Her expertise is in the areas of gender, workplace dynamics and organizational culture. She has received numerous national awards for her research on the “motherhood penalty,” research that demonstrates how motherhood influences the workplace evaluations, pay and job opportunities of mothers. Professor Correll recently led a nationwide, interdisciplinary project on “redesigning work” that evaluates how workplaces structures and practices can reconfigured to be simultaneously more inclusive and more innovative. She is also studying how gender stereotypes and organizational practices affect the entry and retention of women in technical professions and how the growth of the craft beer industry affects the founding and success of women brewers. She is currently writing a book called Delivering on Diversity: Eliminating Bias and Spurring Innovation.
Martin N. Davidson
PROFESSOR OF LEADERSHIP AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR, DARDEN GRADUATE SCHOOL OF BUSINESS
Dr. Martin N. Davidson is Professor of Leadership and Organizational Behavior at the University of Virginia’s Darden Graduate School of Business. He teaches, researches, and consults with leaders in the Americas, Europe, Africa, and Asia on how they can use diversity strategically to generate superior business performance. His research appears in Administrative Science Quarterly, Harvard Business Review, Research on Negotiation in Organizations, and the International Journal of Conflict Management and several other journals and books. In his recent book, “The End of Diversity as We Know It: Why Diversity Efforts Fail and How Leveraging Difference Can Succeed,” Davidson introduces a research-driven paradigm for leaders frustrated or disillusioned with traditional ways of designing and implementing diversity initiatives.
Davidson teaches leadership in Darden’s highly regarded Executive Education and MBA programs, and consults with a host of Fortune 500 firms, government agencies, and non-profit organizations. He has served as the chair of the Gender and Diversity in Organizations Division of the Academy of Management, and has been featured in numerous media outlets including The New York Times, Business Week, The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post, and National Public Radio. He earned his A.B. from Harvard University and his Ph.D. from Stanford University.
PROFESSOR OF SOCIOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA
Erin L. Kelly is Professor and the Martindale Chair of Sociology at the University of Minnesota, director of the Life Course Center, and an affiliate of the Minnesota Population Center. She studies the adoption and implementation of new workplace policies and the consequences of these innovations for employees, families, and work organizations. Her research on flexibility initiatives, family leaves, childcare benefits, sexual harassment policies, and diversity programs has been published in the American Sociological Review, American Journal of Sociology, Law & Society Review, and other venues. Kelly’s research integrates quantitative and qualitative methods, including group-randomized trials, quasi-experimental designs, multilevel models, event history analysis as well as semi-structured interviews and ethnographic methods. Kelly is part of the Work, Family and Health Network, supported by the National Institutes of Health and Centers for Disease Control.
Susan J. Lambert
ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR, SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SERVICE ADMINISTRATION, UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO
Susan J. Lambert is an Associate Professor in the School of Social Service Administration at the University of Chicago. Over the past twenty years, Lambert has conducted a series of studies on employer practices and employment conditions in low-level, hourly jobs with the goal of identifying ways to improve workers’ economic security and ability to fulfill caregiving responsibilities. The sites for Lambert’s research span both production and non-production industries, including retail, hospitality, financial services, transportation, and manufacturing, and both publicly-held and family-owned companies. Her research designs combine quantitative and qualitative strategies, from comparative organizational case-studies to a cluster-randomized experiment of the effects of improved scheduling practices on the well-being of sales associates in a national retail firm. Lambert’s work appears in leading academic journals such the Academy of Management Journal, Human Relations, and Community, Work & Family as well as edited books in law, sociology, social policy, and labor and industrial relations.
Lori Nishiura Mackenzie
FOUNDER, ONLINE VOICE & INFLUENCE PROGRAM
EXECUTIVE EDITOR, UPRISING AND GENDER NEWS
As Executive Director, Lori Nishiura Mackenzie leads the strategic direction and operations of the Institute, including finance, community relations, marketing, and program development. She is co-founder of the Institute's latest initiative, the Center for Women's Leadership. Mackenzie is creator of the workshops the Language of Leadership and the Dyanmics of Hyper-Effective Teams. She is founder of the online Voice & Influence program aimed at providing people with the skills, information and inspiration to be as effective as possible. This curriculum has been widely viewed through the Clayman Institute's partnership with LeanIn.org, the Stanford Graduate School of Business, the Darden Graduate School of Business and INSEAD.
Mackenzie frequently speaks about Women's Leadership and Seeing | Blocking Bias at leading companies and organizations. Conference presentations include Mt. St. Mary's Women's Leadership Conference, Girls Alliance Keynote, the MAKERS Conference, Professional Business Women of California, eBay WIN Summit, Cisco CTSO Women's Conference, Amelia Earhart Society, VMWorld, the Latina Coalition, HR People & Strategy Global Conference, and the Grace Hopper Celebration Technical Executive Forum. Company presentations include CA Technologies,Cisco, Deloitte, eBay, Genentech, General Mills, LinkedIn, Mozilla, RedHat, Schwab, Shearman & Sterling, State Street, and VMware.
Mackenzie is executive editor of the See Bias | Block Bias Toolkits, which turn research into useful guidelines and worksheets to empower leaders to be more effective and inclusive. She is also executive editor of Gender News and the annual research magazine, upRising. Her articles has been published on Stanford news outlets, the Huffington Post and other media.
Mackenzie joined the Institute after working in marketing and business management for 20 years at leading companies such Procter & Gamble, Apple, eBay, PayPal and CafePress. She has an MBA from the Wharton School of Business at the University of Pennsylvania and a BA in Economics from the University of California, Berkeley. She is on the boards of the Women's Foundation of California, the Alliance for Girls, and the Everest Project. Mackenzie was also a member of the Avon Global Women's Strategy Think Tank, the Launch Team of LeanIn.org, and the Gender Equity Principles working group at the City of San Francisco Department on the Status of Women.
PROFESSOR OF SOCIOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA
Phyllis Moen holds a McKnight Presidential Endowed Chair and is Professor of Sociology at the University of Minnesota, arriving there in 2003 after twenty-five years as a professor at Cornell University where she held the Ferris Family Chair in Life Course Studies. She received her Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota in 1978. Professor Moen co-directs (with Erin Kelly) the Flexible Work and Well-Being Center (located in the Minnesota Population Center), part of a larger research network initiative supported by the National Institutes of Health and Centers for Disease Control to investigate workplace policy initiatives aimed at promoting individual and family health and life quality as well as positive business outcomes.
Moen has published numerous books and articles on careers, retirement, health, gender, policy and families as they intersect and as they play out over the life course. Her two most recent books are It’s About Time: Couples and Careers (2003) and The Career Mystique: Cracks in the American Dream (2005, with Pat Roehling), which won the 2005 Award for Excellence in Sociology from the Association of American Publishers’ Professional and Scholarly Publishing Division. Dr. Moen’s recent research is examining the effects of promoting flexibility and control over time on both older and younger women and men workers.
Professor Moen is currently on the board of SHiFT, a small non-profit in the Twin Cities focused on adults in transition. She has previously served on the board of Civic Ventures, a national non-for profit organization that generates ideas and programs to reframe and redefine the second half of life. Dr. Moen has also served as a member of the Conference Board’s Work-Life Leadership Council. She currently serves on the research advisory committee for the Center on Aging and Workplace Flexibility at Boston College. She has been elected as a fellow in the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Gerontological Society of America, and the National Council of Family Relations. Dr. Moen is currently writing another book, Boomers on the Edge: Navigating the Risks and Promise of Encore Adulthood, to be published by Oxford University Press.
PROFESSOR OF SOCIOLOGY, HUNTER COLLEGE
PROFESSOR OF SOCIOLOGY, GRADUATE CENTER OF THE CITY UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK
Pamela Stone is Professor of Sociology at Hunter College and the GraduateCenter of the City University of New York. A recipient of numerous grants and fellowships in support of her research, including one at the Radcliffe Institute, HarvardUniversity, she is an expert on women in the workplace and has written widely on such topics as the gender wage gap, pay equity, and the work-family interface. She has also consulted, provided expert testimony, and lectured extensively about these issues, and was one of the few academic researchers invited to participate in the historic 2010 White House Forum on Workplace Flexibility, an effort to begin a national policy dialogue on how workplaces can better meet the needs of today’s working families. Her book, Opting Out? Why Women Really Quit Careers and Head Home (University of California Press), which Publishers Weekly described as “fascinating and surprising” and Business Week lauded as “provocative, superbly researched, and required reading,” won the William J. Goode Book Award of the American Sociological Association. Her work has received extensive press and media coverage, including The New York Times (most recently an August, 2013, cover story in The New York Times Magazine), Science, Time, Forbes, Working Mother (which named Opting Out? one of its editors’ “Picks for Moms”), and appearances on the CBS Nightly News and the Today Show, among others. In research currently underway, she is conducting a follow-up of the women interviewed for Opting Out? and carrying out a cross-national study of policies affecting work time in advanced economies. An honors graduate of Duke University, Stone received her PhD from Johns Hopkins University.
Joan C. Williams
DISTINGUISHED PROFESSOR OF LAW, UC HASTINGS
FOUNDING DIRECTOR OF CENTER FOR WORKLIFE LAW
AUTHOR, WHAT WORKS FOR WOMEN AT WORK
Joan C. Williams has played a central role in reshaping the debates over women’s advancement for the past quarter-century. Described as having "something approaching rock star status” by The New York Times, Williams was awarded the American Bar Foundation's Outstanding Scholar Award (2012), the Elizabeth Hurlock Beckman Award (2012), the ABA’s Margaret Brent Award for Women Lawyers of Achievement (2006), and the Gustavus Myers Outstanding Book Award for Unbending Gender: Why Family and Work Conflict and What to Do About It (Oxford University Press, 2000). In recognition of her interdisciplinary work, Williams gave the 2008 Massey Lectures in American Civilization at Harvard University, delivered in prior years by (among others) Eudora Welty, Gore Vidal and Toni Morrison.
Williams, who is Distinguished Professor of Law and Hastings Foundation Chair at University of California, Hastings College of the Law, has authored or co-authored seven books. She has written over seventy law review articles, including one listed in 1996 as one of the most cited law review articles ever written. Her work has been excerpted in casebooks on six different topics.
As Founding Director of WorkLife Law (WLL), Williams has played a leading role in documenting workplace bias against mothers, leadng to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission’s 2007 Guidance on Caregiver Discrimination. Her article “Beyond the Maternal Wall: Relief for Family Caregivers Who Are Discriminated Against on the Job,” 26 Harvard Women’s Law Review 77 (2003)(co-authored with Nancy Segal), was prominently cited in the landmark case, Back v. Hastings on Hudson Union Free School District, 365 F.3d 107 (2d Cir. 2004). Williams has organized social scientists to document workplace bias against mothers, notably in a 2004 special issue of the Journal of Social Issues titled “The Maternal Wall” (co-edited with Monica Biernat and Faye Crosby), which received the Distinguished Publication Award of the Association for Women in Psychology.
Williams also has played a central role in documenting how work-family conflict affects working-class families, through reports such as “One Sick Child Away From Being Fired” (2006), “Three Faces of Work-Family Conflict” (2010) (co-authored by Heather Boushey of the Center for American Progress), and “Improving Work-Life Fit in Hourly Jobs” (2011). Williams’ current research focuses on how work-family conflict differs at different class locations; on the "culture wars" as class conflict; on how gender bias differs by race; and on the role of gender pressures on men in creating work-family conflict and gender inequality.
View Why Doesn't Work Work? References
Workplace Compliance With the Law: The Case of the Family and Medical Leave Act
Armenia, Amy, Naomi Gerstel and Coady Wing. 2013. "Workplace Compliance With the Law: The Case of the Family and Medical Leave Act." Work and Occupations. Advance Online Publication.
Ask and Ye Shall Receive? The Dynamics of Employer Provided Flexible Work Options and the Need for Public Policy
Brescoll, Victoria L., Jennifer Glass, and Alexandra Sedlovskaya. 2013. "Ask and Ye Shall Receive? The Dynamics of Employer Provided Flexible Work Options and the Need for Public Policy." Journal of Social Issues 69(2): 367–388.
Consequences of Flexibility Stigma Among Academic Scientists and Engineers
Cech, Erin A. and Mary Blair-Loy. 2014. "Consequences of Flexibility Stigma Among Academic Scientists and Engineers." Work and Occupations 41(1): 86-110.
Getting a Job: Is There a Motherhood Penalty?
Correll, Shelley J, Steven Benard and In Paik. 2007. "Getting a Job: Is There a Motherhood Penalty?" American Journal of Sociology 112(5): 1297-1339.
The Origins of the Ideal Worker: The Separation of Work and Home in the United States From the Market Revolution to 1950
Davies, Andrea Rees and Brenda D. Frink. 2014. "The Origins of the Ideal Worker: The Separation of Work and Home in the United States From the Market Revolution to 1950." Work and Occupations 41(1): 18-39.
Limited Access: Disparities in Flexible Work Schedules and Location
Golden, Lonnie. 2007. "Limited Access: Disparities in Flexible Work Schedules and Location." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 29(1): 86-109.
Gendered Challenge, Gendered Response: Confronting the Ideal Worker Norm in a White Collar Organization
Kelly, Erin L. Samantha K. Ammons, Kelly Chermack, Phyllis Moen. 2010. "Gendered Challenge, Gendered Response: Confronting the Ideal Worker Norm in a White Collar Organization." Gender and Society 24(3) 281-303.
Managing Flexible Work Arrangements in US Organizations: Formalized Discretion or ‘A Right to Ask
Kelly, Erin L. and Alexandra Kalev. 2006. "Managing Flexible Work Arrangements in US Organizations: Formalized Discretion or ‘A Right to Ask." Socio-Economic Review 4(3): 379-416.
Getting There from Here: Research on the Effects of Work–Family Initiatives on Work–Family Conflict and Business Outcomes
Kelly, Erin. L., Ellen Ernst Kossek, Leslie B. Hammer, Mary Durham, Jeremy Bray, Kelly Chermack, Lauren A. Murphy, and Dan Kaskubar. 2008. "Getting There from Here: Research on the Effects of Work–Family Initiatives on Work–Family Conflict and Business Outcomes." The Academy of Management Annals 2(1): 305-349.
In Pursuit of Equity: Women, Men, and the Quest for Economic Citizenship in 20th Century America
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Using Additional Information on Working Hours to Predict Coronary Heart Disease: A Cohort Study
Kivmaki, Mika, G. David Batty, Mark Hamer, Jane E. Ferrie, Jussi Fahtera, Marianna Virtanene, Michael G. Marmot, Archana Singh-Manoux, and Martin J. Shipley. 2011. "Using Additional Information on Working Hours to Predict Coronary Heart Disease: A Cohort Study." Annals of Internal Medicine 154(7): 457-463.
Invisible Inequality: Social Class and Child Rearing in Black Families and White Families
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Opting Back In: the Influence of Time at Home on Professional Women's Career Redirection after Opting Out
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The Career Mystique
Moen, Phyllis and Patricia V. Roehling. 2005. The Career Mystique. Boulder, CO: Rowman and Littlefield.
Pluralistic Ignorance and the Flexibility Bias: Understanding and Mitigating Flextime and Flexplace Bias at Work
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Opting Out? Cohort Differences in Professional Women's Employment Rates from 1960-2005
Percheski, Christine. 2008. "Opting Out? Cohort Differences in Professional Women's Employment Rates from 1960-2005." American Sociological Review 73(3): 497-517.
Opting Out?: Why Women Really Quit Careers and Head Home
Stone, Pamela. 2007. Opting Out?: Why Women Really Quit Careers and Head Home. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
A Question of Justice: Disparities in Employees' Access to Flexible Schedule Arrangements
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Long Working Hours and Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression: A 5-year Follow-up of the Whitehall II Study
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